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The early bariatric surgical procedures performed for weight loss, such as the jejuno-colon bypass with an anastomosis performed between the proximal jejunum and the ascending colon, were designed to prevent nutrient absorption in the small intestine .Contemporary operations for weight loss include a combination of volume restrictive and nutrient malabsorptive procedures that affect satiety, absorption, and insulin sensitivity hormonal or enteric derived factors, in conjunction with behavior modification.

A consultation with a multidisciplinary bariatric team provides extensive education on nutrition, psychological deterrents, and lifestyle modification as well as the determination if an obese patient is a candidate for a surgical weight loss procedure, and emphasizes the importance of lifelong surveillance. A reliable bariatric program will provide a comprehensive information session for potential surgical candidates that will detail realistic outcomes from weight loss surgery including morbidities and mortalities [1].

This topic will review the contemporary, investigational, revisional, and obsolete bariatric procedures offered to obese patients with a body mass index (BMI) of greater than 40 kg/m2 or a BMI of 35 kg/m2 with an obesity related comorbidity (eg, diabetes, hypertension).