Rectal prolapse is a condition in which the rectum (the lower end of the colon, located just above the anus) becomes stretched out and protrudes out of the anus. Weakness of the anal sphincter muscle is often associated with rectal prolapse at this stage, resulting in leakage of stool or mucus. While the condition occurs in both sexes, it is much more common in women than men.
Types of Rectal Prolapse
There are two types of rectal prolapse:
1. Partial thickness prolapse
2. Full-thickness prolapse.
Why does it occur?
Several factors may contribute to the development of rectal prolapse. It may come from a lifelong habit of straining to have bowel movements or as a late consequence of the childbirth process. Rarely, there may be a genetic predisposition. It seems to be a part of the aging process in many patients who experience stretching of the ligaments that support the rectum inside the pelvis as well as weakening of the anal sphincter muscle. Sometimes rectal prolapse results from generalized pelvic floor dysfunction, in association with urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse as well. Neurological problems, such as spinal cord transection or spinal cord disease, can also lead to prolapse. In most cases, however, no single cause is identified.